About the Authors:

Joanne C. McCloskey, PhD, RN, FAAN joanne-mccloskey@uiowa.edu

Distinguished Professor and Chair Organizations, Systems, and Community,College of Nursing, The University of Iowa

She currently serves as Chairperson of the Area of Organizations, Systems, and Community and as Director of the center for Nursing Classification. She is also Adjunct Associate Director of Nursing at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Since 1982, McCloskey has headed up the nursing service administration program at the University of Iowa.

McCloskey is an active researcher and writer. She has numerous publications in the areas of nursing turnover, job performance and nursing interventions. She is the editor and author of 11 books. These include: Current Issues in Nursing (fifth edition, 1997), Nursing Interventions: Essential Nursing Treatments (second edition, 1992), and the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) (second edition, 1996).

McCloskey's leadership and expertise have been instrumental in the development and implementation of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), a standardized language that describes treatments that nurses perform. NIC is being used around the country to document and study nursing care. Dr. McCloskey also founded the Series on Nursing Administration and has written countless articles and book chapters.

McCloskey has received numerous awards, including the University of Iowa's Hancher-Fiskbine Medallion for excellent teaching and the Distinguished Contribution to Research Award from the Midwest Nursing Research Society. In 1994, Dr. McCloskey was the recipient of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association's Unique Contribution Award and in 1997 she received the Dorothy Garrigus Adams Founder's Award from Sigma Theta Tau for fostering high professional standards. In 1993, the University of Iowa awarded her the first University of Iowa Foundation Distinguished Professorship in the College of Nursing.

Internationally, Dr. McCloskey was a visiting scholar in 1985 at the Center of Health Economics in England and a scholar-in-residence in 1991 at the Rockefeller Foundation Center in Bellagio, Italy. She has served on the board of directors of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association and on the governing board of the American Academy of Nursing. She is currently a member of the editorial boards of Nursing Outlook, Nursing Economic$, Nursing Administration Quarterly, and the Journal of Nursing Measurement.


Gloria M. Bulechek, PhD, RN, FAAN gloria-bulechek@uiowa.edu

Professor, College of Nursing, The University of Iowa

Dr. Bulechek assists with the preparation of Advanced Practice Nurses in the Master's Program currently. She has been working for over a decade to standardize the language for nursing treatments. In 1987, she co-founded and continues to lead a research team to develop, validate, and implement the taxonomy of nursing interventions. More than 60 team members have participated in what is known as the Iowa Intervention Project. In phase one of the Project, a classification of 336 interventions in an alphabetical list was developed and published in the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) (Mosby-Year Book, 1992). In phase two of the Project, a three-level taxonomy was constructed to organize 433 interventions into like groups and a coding structure was developed. This appeared in the second edition of NIC in 1996. The third phase of the Project involves field testing the Taxonomy in 5 clinical sites. The NIC language is comprehensive and can be used by nurses in all settings and in all specialties. NIC facilitates the implementation of the Nursing Minimum Data Set and provides nursing with a treatment language that will be essential for the computerized healthcare record. Dr. Bulechek has presented the NIC Project to national and international audiences including the American Nurses Association, North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, Sigma Theta Tau International, Midwest Nursing Research Society, Canadian Nurses Association, First European Conference on Nursing Diagnosis, Swiss Medical Informatics Society, International Medical Informatics Association, and the International Council of Nurses.

Dr. Bulechek is co-editor of the award winning Nursing Interventions: Treatments for Nursing Diagnoses (1985); Nursing Interventions: Essential Nursing Treatments (1992), which was translated into Japanese in 1995; and a symposium on nursing interventions in Nursing Clinics of North America (June 1992). She has served on the editorial board of Nursing Diagnosis; the American Nurses Association Committee on Standards and Guidelines; and the National Center for Nursing Research Priority Panel on Nursing Informatics.